Υπεροχη παρουσιαση για την απειλη που υπαρχει μεσω των αλγοριθμων που βασιζονται στα μοντελα παραγωγης περιεχομενων του GPT-3
AI's Jurassic Park moment
Everybody is talking about systems like chatGPT (OpenAI), Dall-E 2, and Lensa that generate text and images that look remarkably human-like, with astonishingly little effort. Executives at Meta and OpenAI are as enthusiastic about their tools as the proprietors of Jurassic Park were about theirs.
The question is, what are we going to do about it.
The core of that threat comes from the combination of three facts:
• these systems are inherently unreliable
, frequently making errors of both reasoning and fact
, and prone to hallucination
; ask them to explain why crushed porcelain is good in breast milk, and they may tell you that “porcelain can help to balance the nutritional content of the milk, providing the infant with the nutrients they need to help grow and develop”. (Because the systems are random, highly sensitive to context, and periodically updated, any given experiment may yield different results on different occasions.)
• they can easily be automated to generate misinformation
at unprecedented scale.
• they cost almost nothing to operate, and so they are on a path to reducing the cost of generating disinformation to zero
. Russian troll farms spent more than a million dollars a month in the 2016 election; nowadays you can get your own custom-trained large language model, for keeps, for less than $500,000. Soon the price will drop further.
All of this raises a critical question: what can society do about this new threat?
Where the technology itself can no longer be stopped, I see four paths, none easy, not exclusive, all urgent:
- First, every social media company and search engine should support and extend StackOverflow’s ban; automatically-generated content that is misleading, should not be welcome, and the regular posting of it should be grounds for a user’s removal.
- Second, every country is going to need to reconsider its policies on misinformation. It’s one thing for the occasional lie to slip through; it’s another for us all to swim in a veritable ocean of lies. In time, though it would not be a popular decision, we may have to begin to treat misinformation as we do libel, making it actionable if it is created with sufficient malice and sufficient volume.
- Third, provenance is more important now than ever before. User accounts must be more strenuously validated, and new systems like Harvard and Mozilla’s human-ID.org that allow for anonymous, bot-resistant authentication need to become mandatory; they are no longer a luxury we can afford to wait on.
- Fourth, we are going to need to build a new kind of AI to fight what has been unleashed. Large language models are great at generating misinformation, but poor at fighting it. That means we need new tools. Large language models lack mechanisms for verifying truth; we need to find new ways to integrate them with the tools of classical AI, such as databases, webs of knowledge, and reasoning.